Information to have about Gluformin XL 500mg..
glucophage xl, metformin is an oral anti-diabetic medication used to treat
type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes (formerly adult-onset). metformin is
not used to treat type 1 (insulin- dependent) diabetes (formerly juvenile-onset).
diabetes develops when the body proves unable to burn sugar and the unused sugar builds up in the bloodstream. glucophage lowers the amount of sugar in your blood by decreasing sugar production and absorption and helping your body respond better to its own insulin, which promotes the burning of sugar. it does not, however, increase the body &cotes s production of insulin.
glucophage is sometimes prescribed along with insulin or certain other oral antidiabetic drugs such as micronase or glucotrol. it is also used alone.
standard glucophage tablets are taken two or three times daily. an extended-release form (glucophage xr) is available for once-daily dosing.
metformin is used on an experimental basis in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos), a condition of multiple cysts in the ovaries that can lead to infertility in women.
metformin xl helps your body to regulate the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood.
insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that lowers glucose levels in blood by reducing the amount of glucose made by the liver and by increasing the removal of glucose from the blood by muscle and fat tissues. diabetes results because of reduced production of insulin and reduced uptake (and effects) of insulin on the body &cotes s tissues.
metformin acts by increasing the sensitivity of liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues to the uptake and effects of insulin. these actions lower the level of sugar in the blood.
metformin therefore decreases the absorption of sugar or \\\"glucose\\\" by the intestines, decreases the production of sugar in the liver, and also increases the body &cotes s ability to use insulin.
unlike glucose-lowering drugs of the sulfonylurea class, e.g. glyburide (micronase; diabeta) or glipizide (glucotrol), metformin does not increase the concentration of insulin in the blood and, therefore, does not cause excessively low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) when used alone. in scientific studies, metformin reduced the complications of diabetes such as heart disease, blindness and kidney disease.
metformin was approved by the fda in december of 1994.
dosage: how should you take glucophage xl?
do not take more or less of this medication than directed by your doctor. the drug should be taken with food to reduce the possibility of nausea or diarrhea, especially during the first few weeks of therapy.
if taking glucophage xr, be sure to swallow the tablet whole; do not crush it or chew it. the inactive ingredients in the tablet may occasionally appear in the stool. this is not a cause for concern.
your doctor will tailor your dosage to your individual needs.
the usual starting dose is one 500-milligram tablet twice a day, taken with morning and evening meals. your doctor may increase your daily dose by 500 milligrams at weekly intervals, based on your response up to a total of 2,000 milligrams.
an alternative starting dose is one 850-milligram tablet a day, taken with the morning meal. your doctor may increase this by 850 milligrams at 14-day intervals, to a maximum of 2,550 milligrams a day.
the usual maintenance dose ranges from 1,500 to 2,550 milligrams daily. if you take more than 2,000 milligrams a day, your doctor may recommend that the medication be divided into three doses, taken with each meal.
the usual starting dose is one 500-milligram tablet once daily with the evening meal. your doctor may increase your dose by 500 milligrams at weekly intervals, up to a maximum dosage of 2,000 milligrams a day. if a single 2,000-milligram dose fails to control your blood sugar, you may be asked to take 1,000-milligram doses twice a day. if you need more than 2,000 milligrams a day, the doctor will switch you to regular glucophage.
for children 10 to 16 years old, the usual starting dose is one 500-milligram tablet twice a day with meals. the dosage may be increased by 500 milligrams at weekly intervals up to a maximum of 2,000 milligrams daily. glucophage has not been tested in children younger than 10.
this form of the drug has not been tested in children younger than 17.
older people and those who are malnourished or in a weakened state are generally given lower doses of glucophage because their kidneys may be weaker, making side effects more likely.
an overdose of glucophage can cause lactic acidosis. (see \\\"what side effects may occur?\\\") if you suspect a glucophage overdose, seek emergency treatment immediately.
if you miss a dose:
take it as soon as you remember. if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the one you missed and go back to your regular schedule. never take 2 doses at the same time.
store it at room temperature.
tablets: 500mg, 850mg, 1000 mg.
glucophage xr (extended release) tablets: 500mg, 750 mg
possible food and drug interactions when taking glucophage xl
if glucophage xl is taken with certain other drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. it is especially important to check with your doctor before combining glucophage with the following:
calcium channel blockers (heart medications) such as calan, isoptin, and procardia,
decongestant, airway-opening drugs such as sudafed and ventolin,
estrogens such as premarin,
isoniazid (rifamate), a drug used for tuberculosis,
major tranquilizers such as thorazine,
procainamide (procanbid, pronestyl),
steroids such as prednisone (deltasone),
thyroid hormones (synthroid),
triamterene (dyazide, dyrenium),
trimethoprim (bactrim, septra),
water pills (diuretics) such as hydrodiuril, dyazide, and moduretic.
do not drink too much alcohol, since excessive alcohol consumption can cause low blood sugar and alcohol enhances some effects of this drug.
special information on glucophage xl
special information if you are pregnant or breastfeeding:
if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, tell your doctor immediately. glucophage xl should not be taken during pregnancy. since studies suggest the importance of maintaining normal blood sugar (glucose) levels during pregnancy, your doctor may prescribe insulin injections instead.
it is not known whether glucophage xl appears in human breast milk. therefore, women should discuss with their doctors whether to discontinue the medication or to stop breastfeeding. if the medication is discontinued and if diet alone does not control glucose levels, then your doctor may consider insulin injections.
always remember that glucophage is an aid to, not a substitute for, good diet and exercise. failure to follow a sound diet and exercise plan can lead to serious complications such as dangerously high or low blood sugar levels. remember, too, that glucophage is not an oral form of insulin and cannot be used in place of insulin.
glucophage xl side effects
side effects cannot be anticipated. if any develop or change in intensity, tell your doctor as soon as possible. only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking glucophage xl.
if side effects from glucophage xl occur, they usually happen during the first few weeks of therapy. most side effects are minor and will go away after you\\\'ve taken glucophage for a while.
more common side effects may include:
abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, gas, headache, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, weakness.
less common side effects may include:
abdominal distention, abnormal stools, altered sense of taste, chest discomfort, chills, constipation, dizziness, flu-like symptoms, flushing, increased sweating, low blood sugar, light-headedness, muscle pain, nail disorders, pounding heartbeat, rash, shortness of breath, upper respiratory infection.
glucophage xl, unlike other oral antidiabetics, does not usually cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). however, hypoglycemia remains a possibility, especially in older, weak, and undernourished people and those with kidney, liver, adrenal, or pituitary gland problems. the risk of hypoglycemia increases when glucophage xl is combined with other diabetes medications. the risk is also boosted by missed meals, alcohol, and excessive exercise. to avoid hypoglycemia, you should closely follow the dietary and exercise plan suggested by your physician. if you feel hypoglycemia coming on, get some fast-acting sugar, such as a 4 to 6 ounce glass of fruit juice.
glucophage xl can cause a serious side effect called lactic acidosis, a buildup of lactic acid in the blood. this problem is most likely to occur in people whose liver or kidneys are not working well, and in those who have multiple medical problems, take several medications, or have congestive heart failure. the risk also is higher if you are an older adult or drink alcohol. although the condition is rare, it can be fatal. lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital.
symptoms of lactic acidosis may include:
feeling very weak, tired, or uncomfortable, feeling cold, dizzy, or light-headed, increasing sleepiness, muscle pain, slow or irregular heartbeat, trouble breathing, unexpected or unusual stomach discomfort (especially if you already have been taking glucophage for a while).
if you notice these symptoms, stop taking glucophage and call your doctor right away.